The Making of a Mexico-to-Canada Wolf Corridor — Part 2

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W. R. McAfee

W. R. McAfee

The South­west is the area where Cana­di­an and Mex­i­can wolves most­ly like­ly will meet and cross­breed. Accord­ing to USFWS doc­u­ments, the Mex­i­can wolf’s inbreed­ing con­tributes to small lit­ter sizes and low pup-sur­vival rates. Cross-breed­ing with the non-native Cana­di­an wolves would “solve” the Mex­i­can wolf’s gene pool prob­lem.  Call it a “nonessen­tial exper­i­men­tal Mex­i­can wolf sub­species.” Or call it what it is—a big­ger cross­bred  “Mex­i­can” gray wolf.

Matt Cronin, a Uni­ver­si­ty of Alas­ka, Fair­banks and research pro­fes­sor of ani­mal genet­ics, addressed USFWS offi­cials at their Pub­lic Hear­ing Con­cern­ing Mex­i­can Wolves in Ari­zona on Decem­ber 3, 2013. He told the pan­el:

… Mex­i­can wolves went through a very large bot­tle­neck.  They don’t rep­re­sent the orig­i­nal pop­u­la­tion. They came from a small Can­is pop­u­la­tion. Assess­ing the sub­species is some­what futile in that respect.

… sub­species, in gen­er­al, are basi­cal­ly a sub­jec­tive cat­e­go­ry. They are not a hard sci­en­tif­i­cal­ly blank cat­e­go­ry.

… this phe­nom­e­non of nam­ing species and sub­species has been termed by the broad sci­en­tif­ic com­mu­ni­ty as infla­tion, split­ting things into groups with the intent of grant­i­ng con­ser­va­tion, again. The entire sci­en­tif­ic com­mu­ni­ty out­side of the wildlife is rec­og­niz­ing this. And it’s very impor­tant that we real­ize that sub­species as a sci­en­tif­ic cat­e­go­ry is sub­jec­tive. It’s not defin­i­tive. The sci­en­tif­ic com­mu­ni­ty agrees on it.

… I sug­gest you use the entire body of sci­ence and the recent dis­cred­it­ing of sub­species that have been list­ed and recon­sid­er the sci­ence…”

Researchers Hedrick and Fredrick­son (2010)8 wrote “ … because of non-sci­en­tif­ic rea­sons, the cross-linage [Mex­i­can] wolves were not incor­po­rat­ed into the rein­tro­duced pop­u­la­tion (of Cana­di­an gray wolves) in a time­ly man­ner and this oppor­tu­ni­ty may have been lost.  If the rein­tro­duced pop­u­la­tion does not increase soon, it may be nec­es­sary to con­sid­er extra­or­di­nary mea­sures, such as intro­duc­ing north­ern gray wolves, a close­ly relat­ed sub­species (Leonard et al. 2005), into the rein­tro­duced Mex­i­can wolf pop­u­la­tion.

When import­ed Cana­di­an wolves were released in Amer­i­ca,  there were still native wolves in Yel­low­stone and Min­neso­ta, plus reg­u­lar cross-overs of Cana­di­an wolves in states that bor­der Cana­da where, in dif­fer­ent Cana­di­an provinces, there’s a boun­ty on their heads but, if they drift across to the U.S. side, they’re “endan­gered.”

A sim­i­lar pic­ture is devel­op­ing  along America’s south­ern bor­der where the USFWS is coor­di­nat­ing with their Mex­i­can coun­ter­parts to rein­tro­duce cap­tive-raised Mex­i­can wolves into north­ern Mex­i­co.  When these wolves drift north onto U.S. bor­der ranch­es and beyond, they will auto­mat­i­cal­ly become “endan­gered” and receive—like the Cana­di­an wolves—a free pre­da­tion pass.

Mexico’s ini­tial rein­tro­duc­tion of five cap­tive-bred Mex­i­can wolves into the San Luis Moun­tains south of the Texas-New Mex­i­co-Ari­zona bor­der in Octo­ber 2011 encoun­tered some dif­fi­cul­ties. By Feb­ru­ary 2012, four of the five released ani­mals had been poi­soned; the sta­tus of a fifth was unknown. A sixth Mex­i­can wolf’s col­lar, found in April 2012, went miss­ing. A pair of Mex­i­can wolves released in Octo­ber 2012 were still alive as of March 3, 2013, though.

Future releas­es in Mex­i­co are planned for Nue­vo Leon, Coahuila, Sono­ra, Chi­huahua, oth­er states. Wolves released in these states will have cross-bor­der access to Texas, Ari­zona, and New Mex­i­co.

It appears the USFWS is attempt­ing to estab­lish a Cana­da-to-Mex­i­co “wildlife cor­ri­dor” using pen-raised Mex­i­can wolf-dog-coy­ote “wolves” to meet and mate with ‘pure’ Cana­di­an wolves drift­ing south from the Rock­ies; thus fur­nish­ing Amer­i­ca a large Heinz-57 live­stock and wildlife killing machine. The fact is the Mex­i­can wolf is not a pure wolf.  It’s a crossbred/inbred gray wolf that can breed with oth­er grays.

Today, the num­ber of Mex­i­can wolves and breed­ing pairs in the wild remain below USFWS pro­jec­tions of the min­i­mum 100 wolves con­sid­ered ‘nec­es­sary” for its sur­vival.  Under the 1998  rein­tro­duc­tion pro­gram, Mex­i­can wolves should have reached 100 in num­ber by 2006.  By the end of 2013, the USFWS esti­mates only 83 col­lared wolves in the wild, of which 37 are in Ari­zona and 46 are in New Mex­i­co; 99% of which are locat­ed in Catron Coun­ty, New Mex­i­co. Based on his inves­tiga­tive assess­ments of uncol­lared wolves, Carey esti­mates a min­i­mum of 14 (30%) more wolves in his area, but says the num­ber could be as high as 60. USFWS— with more than 300 ‘Mex­i­can’ wolves in USFWS cap­tive breed­ing programs—reports the num­ber of uncol­lared wolves in the wild are unknown.9

Genet­ic mate­r­i­al lost through coy­ote-dog-wolf cross­es and cap­tive inbreed­ing remains a major weak­ness of the Mex­i­can wolf pro­gram, for which an esti­mat­ed $30 mil­lion dol­lars has been spent over the last three decades.

Carey not­ed the USFWS’s Inter­a­gency Field Team is often reluc­tant to test for sus­pect­ed wolf-dog hybrids in their DNA lab. Three Mex­i­can wolves in his area have already bred with domes­tic dogs and their lit­ters had to be destroyed.

Two recent books—both of which are thor­ough­ly researched, doc­u­ment­ed, foot-not­ed, and avail­able through Amazon—have final­ly laid the truth about these hard­wired killers before the Amer­i­can pub­lic.

The first is Wolves in Rus­sia: Anx­i­ety Through the Ages  by Will Graves10, com­piled from first­hand accounts by Russ­ian cit­i­zens, eye-wit­ness­es, and Russ­ian research and reports on these preda­tors.  Graves couldn’t find a pub­lish­er in the U.S. and had to go to Cana­da to get it print­ed. In it, he writes about the con­se­quences of unchecked Russ­ian wolves:

The Cen­tral Admin­is­tra­tion of Hunt­ing in Kaza­khstan records that in 1986 there were 300 teams of pro­fes­sion­al wolf hunters total­ing 1,104 hunters culling wolves in Kaza­khstan.  Notwith­stand­ing this effort, it is report­ed that ‘Their com­bined effort was insuf­fi­cient to hold back the increase in wolf num­bers.’  The fol­low­ing year, 1987, there were 150,000 domes­tic live­stock (most­ly sheep, hors­es, and cat­tle, but includ­ing some pigs, camels, ass­es, etc.) in Kaza­khstan lost to wolves.  The year after, 1988, 200,000 domes­tic live­stock were killed by wolves.”

Graves also doc­u­ments wide rang­ing wolves as pro­lif­ic car­ri­ers of par­a­sites (more than 50) and dis­eases which they spread to wildlife, live­stock, pets, and humans; includ­ing echinococ­ci, cys­ticer­coc­ci, coeruni—all of which attach to humans—as well as the trichinel­l­i­dae fam­i­ly.

Dis­eases spread by wolves include foot and mouth dis­ease, anthrax, bru­cel­losis, rabies, deer-fly-fever, tae­nia hydati­ge­na, lis­tero­sis, and oth­ers.

The sec­ond book is The Real Wolf, by Ted Lyon and Will Graves11. Released in Jan­u­ary 2014, it contains—in addi­tion to their writings—eleven in-depth research papers (with more than 450 foot­notes) doc­u­ment­ing the dam­age the Cana­di­an wolves have done, are doing, and will con­tin­ue to do as they mul­ti­ply expo­nen­tial­ly and even­tu­al­ly cross­breed with the Mex­i­can wolves.

Books exist and his­to­ry is replete with what Amer­i­ca was like with tens of thou­sands of wolves roam­ing the con­ti­nent before it was settled.12 To not know what the end results would be once the “endan­gered” Cana­di­an wolves were released and their poten­tial for killing wildlife, live­stock, and peo­ple defies creduli­ty.

Delib­er­ate­ly cre­at­ing such an envi­ron­ment for west­ern stock­men and rur­al Amer­i­ca masks either insan­i­ty or a hid­den agen­da.

Typical of wolf attack on cattle; six days old - note maggots.

Typ­i­cal of wolf attack on cat­tle; six days old — note mag­gots.


REFERENCES

1)      Pro­pos­al to Delist Gray Wolf and Focus ESA Pro­tec­tion on Mex­i­can Wolf  http://www.fws.gov/home/wolfrecovery/

 

2)      Wolves respon­si­ble for death of 176 sheep on Sid­doway Ranch in Ida­ho

http://www.tsln.com/news/7817168–113/sheep-wolves-siddoway-idaho

 

3)      Lopez, Bar­ry H. (1978). Of Wolves and Men. J. M. Dent and Sons Lim­it­ed. p. 18. ISBN 0–7432-4936–4.

 

4)      Carey, Jess (2011) Com­pa­ra­bil­i­ty of Con­firmed Wolf Depre­da­tions to Actu­al Loss­es: Wolves Den­ning in Calf/yearling Core Areas, Catron Coun­ty, New Mex­i­co, WolfReport02

 

5)      Wolf Attacks On Humans  By T. R. Mad­er, Research Direc­tor, Abun­dant Wildlife Soci­ety Of North Amer­i­ca http://www.aws.vcn.com/wolf_attacks_on_humans.html

 

6)      McNay, M. E. (2007) “A Review of Evi­dence and Find­ings Relat­ed to the Death of Ken­ton Carnegie on 8 Novem­ber 2005 Near Points North, Saskatchewan”. Alas­ka Depart­ment of Fish and Game, Fair­banks, Alas­ka.

 

7)      But­ler, L., B. Dale, K. Beck­men, and S. Far­ley. 2011.Findings Relat­ed to the March 2010 Fatal Wolf Attack near Chig­nik Lake, Alas­ka. Wildlife Spe­cial Pub­li­ca­tion, ADF&G/DWC/WSP-2011–2. Palmer, Alas­ka.

 

8)      Hedrick, P.W. & Fredrick­son, R., 2010, Genet­ic res­cue guide­lines with exam­ples from Mex­i­can wolves and Flori­da pan­thers, Con­ser­va­tion Genet­ics, v. 11, p. 615.

 

9)      The Mex­i­can Wolf Rein­tro­duc­tion Pro­gram, www.azgfd.gov/wolf

 

10)  Graves, Will (2007) Wolves in Rus­sia: Anx­i­ety Through the Ages, Det­selig Enter­pris­es (Jan­u­ary 1, 2007)

http://www.amazon.com/Wolves-Russia-Anxiety-Through-Ages/dp/1550593323

 

11)  Lyon, Ted; Graves, Will (2014) The Real Wolf: The Sci­ence, Pol­i­tics, and Eco­nom­ics of Co-Exist­ing with Wolves in Mod­ern Times (Jan­u­ary 24, 2014) http://www.amazon.com/The-Real-Wolf-Economics-Co-Existing/dp/159152122X

12)  Corbin, Ben­jamin (1900), Ben­jamin Corbin’s Advice: The Wolf Hunter’s Guide. A first hand pic­ture of tens of thou­sands of wolves run­ning ram­pant in the Moun­tain and West­ern States at the turn of the last cen­tu­ry; Inter­net Archive archive.org › Ebook and Texts Archive › The Library of Con­gress‎, http://archive.org/details/corbinsadviceorw00corb